Where does Canada sit 10 years after the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples?

How do these two paragraphs for Indigenous People and children in care differ? I find them condescending to both groups with limited opportunity for either to exercise their rights. This is not my Canada where we advocate internationally for human rights. Based on this, I don’t see any progress. Click here to read the full article or an excerpt below.


“Informed consent means that you are given the supports and resources to be fully at the table to express your point of view,” said Feehan. “It doesn’t mean that you will always get your way. What it means, though, is that you’re truly a participant.”



Source: http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/public-safety-and-emergency-services/public-safety/legal-help/child-protection-mediation/cyp_guidelines_2015.pdf

Many children or youth may not want full decision-making responsibility, but they do wish to be a part of the process and have their views heard and considered in the process;
• Children and youth need to understand that they are not the ultimate decision-maker and will not always get exactly what they are requesting. This way their expectations may be managed. The final decision needs to be explained to children or youth in a way they can understand, and how their input was considered in the process and influenced the decision made;
• The views of the child or youth can and should carry more weight as they get older, as their level of maturity changes with age and development. Their level of input should be in line with their evolving capacity to consider options and make decisions.



Don’t Have Time to Exercise? Do This for 10 Minutes

If you’re an athlete this has been around awhile and naturally occurs for some sports like skiing or snowboarding where you have to rest when you are riding the chair to the top of the mountain. Give it a try. Click here to read the full story or an excerpt below.

“We now have more than 10 years of data showing HIIT yields pretty much the exact same health and fitness benefits as long-term aerobic exercise, and in some groups or populations, it works better than traditional aerobic exercise,” says Todd Astorino, a professor of kinesiology at California State University, San Marcos, who has published more than a dozen study papers on HIIT.

Whether your goal is to improve your fitness, lower your risk for cardiovascular disease, lose weight, strengthen skeletal muscle or help get your blood sugar under control, a few minutes of HIIT seem to be as effective as much longer periods of moderate-paced runningcyclingswimming or other forms of traditional cardio. For well-trained athletes, HIIT may be the best way to elevate your physical performance.

One small study of healthy but sedentary people found just one minute total of HIIT performed three days a week for six weeks was enough to significantly improve blood sugar scores and aerobic capacity, a measure of physical fitness. The study participants completed 10- to 20-second bouts of “all-out” cycling on a stationary bike, each broken up by a couple minutes of rest. The total workout time, start to finish, was 10 minutes.

Other research finds that HIIT may outperform traditional cardio when it comes to fat loss. A HIIT-induced surge in your body’s levels of growth hormones and other organic compounds “can increase fat burning and energy expenditure for hours after exercise,” says study author Stephen Boutcher, an associate professor of medical sciences at the University of New South Wales in Australia.

It doesn’t just work for the young, fit and healthy. Among people with heart disease, HIIT improves cardiorespiratory fitness nearly twice as much as longer stretches of moderate-intensity running, cycling or other aerobic exercises, one review study concluded.

Stung by a jellyfish? Heat it.

Help spread the news. Click here to read the full article or an excerpt below.


Did you know that jellyfish kill more people every year than sharks? Jellyfish stings are a problem and with blooms popping up more frequently, researching treatments has become more and more important for public safety.

So how do you treat a jellyfish sting? Hopefully by now we all know that Friends was wrong. The ammonia in urine won’t make your jellyfish sting feel better. Don’t do it! New research from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa shows that hot packs and hot-water immersion after treatment is the way to go.


Plankton blooms: Causes and Consequences

Phytoplankton need nutrients and light for photosynthesis to occur and grow at very high rates. To limit the growth of phytoplankton and have healthy coastal ecosystems, I feel we need to reduce nonpoint source point pollution AND nutrient/fertilizer runoff from farmlands and cities. For the record, jellyfish are zooplankton and consume or eat phytoplankton. Click here or on the pdf file to read the full article or an excerpt below.


A bloom of Karenia brevis viewed from the air. This "crimson tide" is only composed of small dinoflagellates, but it can have devastating consequences for a coastal ecosystem. Source: http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/File:Red_tide_genera.jpeg

Other phytoplankton blooms are harmful not because of the toxins that they produce, but because of the processes that happen when the blooms die off: massive amounts of phytoplankton die and sink to the bottom where they are decomposed by bacteria. These bacteria use oxygen to consume the dead phytoplankton, creating large portions of the water column that are low in oxygen. Fishes and some zooplankton avoid these low oxygen zones, but gelatinous zooplankton seem to be able to withstand low oxygen conditions. These low oxygen regions are often referred to as “dead zones” because very few animals can live there. A dead zone occurs regularly in the summertime in the northern Gulf of Mexico and has been expanding in recent years. Reducing nutrient/fertilizer runoff from farmlands and cities is therefore crucial to limiting the growth of phytoplankton and maintaining healthy coastal ecosystems.


If algae produce oxygen in a pond, how can having too much algae cause an oxygen depletion?

Good article that explains how phytoplankton can affect oxygen depletion in our water. Click here or on the pdf file to read the full article or an excerpt below.


Algae blooms also respond to changes in the weather, and the denser the bloom, the more severe the response can be. Photosynthesis slows down under cloudy conditions, and, as a result, oxygen production decreases. Extremely calm days may also reduce photosynthesis and oxygen production, even under sunny conditions, by preventing phytoplankton in the middle layers of the pond from mixing near the brighter surface. In summer, oxygen problems may arise because of a simple physical property of water. The warmer the water, the less dissolved oxygen it can hold. When a dense bloom produces a surplus of oxygen on a summer afternoon, the oxygen will not stay in solution and escapes into the atmosphere. During the night, the bloom attempts to take more oxygen out of the water than what remains from daytime photosynthesis. When this occurs, dissolved oxygen levels approach zero.


Implications for Climate Change Policies

This article helps explain why species of phytoplankton are exploding in recent years ….. to balance and increase oxygen levels. Phytoplankton die offs happen from lack of oxygen from poor conditions during the day like cloudy conditions, calm weather, warm water. When die offs occur, bacteria use more oxygen to consume dead phytoplankton and result in “dead zones” where very few animals can live. When oxygen levels are dropping faster than carbon dioxide levels that affects all oxygen-breathing organisms including humans. Click here to read the full article or an excerpt below.


New research shows oxygen depletion in the atmosphere accelerating since 2003, coinciding with the biofuels boom; climate policies that focus exclusively on carbon sequestration could be disastrous for all oxygen-breathing organisms including humans Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

Threat of oxygen depletion

Mention climate change and everyone thinks of CO2 increasing in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect heating the earth, glaciers melting, rising sea levels, floods, hurricanes, droughts, and a host of other environmental catastrophes. Climate mitigating policies are almost all aimed at reducing CO2, by whatever means.

Within the past several years, however, scientists have found that oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere has been dropping, and at higher rates than just the amount that goes into the increase of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, some 2 to 4-times as much, and accelerating since 2002-2003 [1-3]. Simultaneously, oxygen levels in the world’s oceans have also been falling [4] (see Warming Oceans Starved of OxygenSiS 44).

It is becoming clear that getting rid of CO2 is not enough; oxygen has its own dynamic and the rapid decline in atmospheric O2 must also be addressed. Although there is much more O2 than CO2 in the atmosphere – 20.95 percent or 209 460 ppm of Ocompared with around 380 ppm of CO2 – humans, all mammals, birds, frogs, butterfly, bees, and other air-breathing life-forms depend on this high level of oxygen for their well being [5] Living with Oxygen (SiS 43). In humans, failure of oxygen energy metabolism is the single most important risk factor for chronic diseases including cancer and death. ‘Oxygen deficiency’ is currently set at 19.5 percent in enclosed spaces for health and safety [6], below that, fainting and death may result.

The simultaneous decrease in ocean oxygen not only threatens the survival of aerobic marine organisms, but is symptomatic of the slow-down in the ocean’s thermohaline ‘conveyor belt’ circulation system that transports heat from the tropics to the poles, overturns surface layers of into the deep and vice versa, redistributing nutrients and gases for the ocean biosphere, and regulating rainfall and temperatures on the landmasses. This dynamical system is highly nonlinear, and small changes could make it fail altogether, with disastrous runaway effects on the climate [7] (Global Warming & then the Big FreezeSiS20). More importantly, it could wipe out the ocean’s phytoplankton that’s ultimately responsible for splitting water to regenerate oxygen for the entire biosphere, on land and in the sea [4]

Decades of data on world’s oceans reveal a troubling oxygen decline

Many factors at play here and two that are affecting North America is nonpoint source point pollution and phytoplankton which includes cyanobacteria, silica-encased diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, and chalk-coated coccolithophores. Click here to read the full article or an excerpt below.


Decades of data on world's oceans reveal a troubling oxygen decline

Global map of the linear trend of dissolved oxygen at the depth of 100 meters. Credit: Georgia Tech

A new analysis of decades of data on oceans across the globe has revealed that the amount of dissolved oxygen contained in the water – an important measure of ocean health – has been declining for more than 20 years.

Researchers have for years anticipated that rising water temperatures would affect the amount of oxygen in the oceans, since warmer water is capable of holding less dissolved gas than colder water. But the data showed that  was falling more rapidly than the corresponding rise in water temperature.

“The trend of oxygen falling is about two to three times faster than what we predicted from the decrease of solubility associated with the ocean warming,” Ito said. “This is most likely due to the changes in ocean circulation and mixing associated with the heating of the near-surface waters and melting of polar ice.”

The majority of the oxygen in the ocean is absorbed from the atmosphere at the surface or created by photosynthesizing phytoplankton. Ocean currents then mix that more highly oxygenated water with subsurface water. But rising ocean water temperatures near the surface have made it more buoyant and harder for the warmer surface waters to mix downward with the cooler subsurface waters. Melting polar ice has added more freshwater to the ocean surface – another factor that hampers the natural mixing and leads to increased ocean stratification.

“After the mid-2000s, this trend became apparent, consistent and statistically significant—beyond the envelope of year-to-year fluctuations,” Ito said. “The trends are particularly strong in the tropics, eastern margins of each basin and the subpolar North Pacific.”

In an earlier study, Ito and other researchers explored why  was more pronounced in tropical waters in the Pacific Ocean. They found that air pollution drifting from East Asia out over the world’s largest  contributed to oxygen levels falling in tropical waters thousands of miles away.

Once  carried the iron and nitrogen pollution to the tropics, photosynthesizing phytoplankton went into overdrive consuming the excess nutrients. But rather than increasing oxygen, the net result of the chain reaction was the depletion oxygen in subsurface water.