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This literature review is a companion to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Bulletin, The Criminal Justice System’s Response to Parental Abduction (NCJ 186160). The Bulletin summarizes the primary findings of an OJJDP-funded study conducted jointly by the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law and Westat. This review examines the extent of the problem of parental abduction, the characteristics of those involved in parental abductions, and the effect of the crime on children and parents. It also discusses how law enforcement agencies and criminal courts generally handle this crime.