Biological control

I don’t feel that anyone understands how global warming will affect infrastructure costs now or in the future. The Zika Virus could affect water distribution systems world-wide depending on where its spread. Click here to learn more or read an excerpt below or see maps of areas affected by Zika in the USA and the world as of 9 Feb 2016. The  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states “Zika virus will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how and where the virus will spread over time.”



A variety of fish species have been used to eliminate mosquitoes from larger containers used to store potable water in many countries, and in open freshwater wells, concrete irrigation ditches and industrial tanks. Commonly, guppies adapt well to these types of confined water bodies and have been most commonly used. Only native larvivorous fish should be used because exotic species may escape into natural habitats and threaten the indigenous fauna. WHO has published further information on the use of fish for mosquito control.

More information is available from the WHO:

  • Standard Operating Procedures on breeding and dissemination (click here)
  • WHO Use of fish in mosquito control (click here)
Predatory copepods

Various predatory copepod species (small crustaceans) have also proved effective against dengue vectors in operational settings. However, although copepod populations can survive for long periods, as with fish, reintroductions may be necessary for sustained control. A vector control programme in northern Viet Nam using copepods in large water-storage tanks, combined with source reduction, successfully eliminated Ae. aegypti in many communes and has prevented dengue transmission for a number of years. To date, these successes have not been replicated in other countries.


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